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C

c-arm

A C-Arm is a type of radiologic equipment, so named because of its C-shaped arc surrounding its table. A C-Arm is an x-ray image intensifier, normally used for either plain fluoroscopy or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). It allows for lower x-ray doses to be used on patients by magnifying the intensity produced in the output image, enabling the viewer to easily see the structure of the object being imaged.

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c-arm table

A C-Arm table is for examination in conjunction with an x-ray image intensifier, also known as as a C-Arm. The table is constructed to allow for the placement of the C-shaped arc of the x-ray image intensifier, which arcs over both the top and bottom of the table.

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calibrate

To check, adjust, or determine the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument by comparison with a standard.

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calibration

Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.

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campimeter

A portable, handheld device used to measure the visual field.

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cancellus bone screw

A type of bone screw with a smooth shank proximally and coarse threads distally. It is designed to be inserted into cancellous bone. The threads should not cross a fracture line.

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capnography

The monitoring of the concentration of CO2 in end tidal respiratory gases. Used as a monitoring tool for anesthesia and in ICU and increasingly in office based sedation procedures.

This practice is becoming a preferred method of monitoring respiration verses pulse oximetry because it provides much closer to real time feedback and response time.

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Carter-Glassman resection clamp

Used for clamping bowel during resection. Jaws angled at 45 degrees.

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cataract

A cataract is a clouding or opacity in the lens of the eye. A cataract obstructs the passage of light to the eye, and can vary in degree ranging from slight to complete opacity. Early development of a cataract can result in myopia (near-sightedness), while the gradual yellowing and opacification of the lens can reduce the eye’s ability to perceive blue colors. While a cataract can typically be removed by surgery, an untreated cataract can cause vision loss and blindness.

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cauterization

the act of coagulating blood and destroying tissue with a hot iron or caustic agent or by freezing

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cautery

A method of reducing bleeding during transfusion-free surgery. It entails the intentional surgical destruction of tissue, either because the tissue is abnormal or to seal off a bleeding area. This can be achieved through the use of heat, freezing, chemical scarring, electricity, light and ultrasonic or microwave energy.

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centrifuge

A mechanical medical equipment device which is used for spinning small mixed samples very rapidly. Using centrigual force, solid or liquid particles of different densities are separated by high-speed rotation. The particles are placed in a tube in a horizontal circle around a fixed axis, applying force perpendicular to the axis. The denser particles move along the length of the tube to a greater radius of rotation, displacing the lighter particles to the other end. This has the same effect as filtration.

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cerebral aneurysm

Commonly known as a “brain aneurysm,” a cerebral aneurysm is a blood vessel abnormality characterized by a bulging of the walls of a blood vessel which supply blood to the brain. Over time, the blood pressure inside the aneurysm can lead to the expansion and eventual rupture of the aneurysm.

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chalazion

Often confused with styes, a chalazion is a small sebaceous cyst on the eyelid which appears as a bump on the eyelid. It is caused by the inflammation of a blocked meibomian gland, which is a fat-secreting gland of the eyes. A chalazion differs from a stye (hordeolums) in that a chalazion is usually larger than a style, and it is generally painless except for the tenderness which is caused as it swells. A chalazion may eventually disappear on its own after a few months, but usually requires some treatment.

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CO2 absorber

A CO2 (carbon dioxide) absorber is a device used during the administration of anesthesia. The apparatus contains an absorbent material (such as soda lime), which is used to remove carbon dioxide from the gas exhaled by the patient.

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coagulation

An electrosurgical procedure which uses electricity to seal bleeding veins and tissues.

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colonoscope

A thin, lighted tube-like medical device which is used to examine the inside of the entire colon and rectum. A colonoscope has a light and a lens for viewing, and may include a tool used for tissue removal. The device is inserted through the rectum into the colon to enable to doctor to view the entire lining of the colon.

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colposcope

An endoscopic instrument used in the examination of the cervix, vagina, or vulva. The instrument includes a magnifying lens, which is used for the direct observation and study of the tissues of the cervix and vagina.

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colposcopy

A visual examination of the cervix and vagina using a lighted optical magnifying instrument (known as a colposcope, which is a type of endoscope) to check for abnormalities. This procedure is primarily performed to identify areas of cervical dysplasia in women with abnormal Pap smears.

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condenser

An apparatus for cooling a gas in order to convert it to a liquid or the simple or compound lens on a microscope that is used to focus light on the specimen under observation

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conjunctiva

The thin, transparenet mucous membrane which covers the sclera (white part of the eye), lines the inside surface of the eyelid, and extends from the edge of the eye lids to the cornea.

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conscious sedation

An alternative to general anesthesia in patients for whom general anesthesia is refused or considered inadvisable. It involves the administering of an antianxiety drug and an analgesic or local anesthetic. This renders the patient free of anxiety and pain while allowing the patient to remain in verbal contact with the physician or dentist.

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cosmetic surgery

A surgical procedure which is performed to improve the physical appearance of the body, rather than for medical necessity.

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craniotomy

Commonly known as “brain surgery,” a craniotomy is medical term for all surgical procedures which are performed through an opening in the skull. Frequently, a craniotomy is performed in neurosurgical operations to achieve access to the brain and other structures of the head. A craniotomy may be performed to treat or remove cancer, for clipping of an aneurysm, for removal of a vascular malformation, to correct a brain disorder, or to repair a brain injury.

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crash cart

Also known as a crash trolley or code cart. Consists of a set of trays on a wheeled cart that is used in hospital wards and emergency rooms. The cart contains all the basic equipment needed to follow ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) / ALS (Advanced Life Support) protocols and potentially save a person's life. A crash cart typically includes a defibrillator, intravenous medications (such as epinephrine and atropine), and a variety of medical supplies, such as latex gloves and alcohol swabs.

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Crile hemostatic clamp

The most commonly used size of hemostatic clamp, tools that clamp blood vessels or tissue. Can be straight or curved.

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cystoscopy

A procedure in which the doctor inserts a lighted instrument called a cystoscope into the urethra in order to look inside the urethra and bladder. The cystoscope has lenses like a telescope or microscope which lets the doctor focus on the inner surfaces of the urinary tract. The cystoscope is as thin as a pencil and has a light at the tip. Many cystoscopes have extra tubes to guide other instruments for procedures to treat urinary problems.

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cytodiagnosis

Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid.

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